Category: Etc

Contract Law

Contract law is based on the principle expressed in the  Latin phrase pacta sunt servanda, which is usually translated “agreements must be kept” but more literally means “pacts must be kept”. Contract law can be classified, as is habitual in civil law systems, as part of a general law of obligations.

Jurisdictions vary in their principles of freedom of contract. In common law jurisdictions such as the United Kingdom and the United States, a high degree of freedom is expected. This is in contrast to the civil law, which typically applies certain overarching principles to disputes arising out of contract, as in the French Civil Code or the Iranian. Other legal systems such as Islamic law, socialist legal systems, and customary law have their own variations.

Contracts are widely used in commercial law, and form the legal foundation for transactions across the world. Common examples include construction contract, product purchases (with associated warranties of quality), software licenses, employment contracts, insurance policies, real estate deeds to transfer title, professional services, wholesale merchandise supply, and various other uses.


Negotiation is a dialogue between two or more people or parties, intended to reach an understanding, resolve point of diffeNrence, or gain advantage in outcome of dialogue, to produce an agreement upon courses of action, to bargain for individual or collective advantage, to craft outcomes to satisfy various interests of two people/parties involved in negotiation process. Negotiation is a process where each party involved in negotiating tries to gain an advantage for themselves by the end of the process. egotiation is intended to aim at compromise.

Negotiation strategies

Negotiation can take a wide variety of forms, from a trained negotiator acting on behalf of a particular organization or position in a formal setting, to an informal negotiation. Negotiation can be contrasted with mediation, where a neutral third party listens to each side’s arguments and attempts to help craft an agreement between the parties. It can also be compared with arbitration, which resembles a legal proceeding. In arbitration, both sides make an argument as to the merits of their case and the arbitrator decides the outcome. This negotiation is also sometimes called positional or hard-bargaining negotiation.

We at Persia Group have an extensive expertise to resolve international disputes engaging professional negotiators.

Intellectual Property

Intellectual property (IP) is a legal concept which refers to creations of the mind for which exclusive rights are recognized. Under intellectual property law, owners are granted certain exclusive rights to a variety of intangible assets, such as musical, literary, and artistic works; discoveries and inventions; and words, phrases, symbols, and designs. Common types of intellectual property rights include copyright, trademarks, patents, industrial design rights, trade dress, and in some jurisdictions trade secrets.

Although many of the legal principles governing intellectual property rights have evolved over centuries, it was not until the 19th century that the term intellectual property began to be used, and not until the late 20th century that it became commonplace in the majority of the world.

Statement 5+1 and Iran

Switzerland, 2 April 2015

We, the EU High Representative and the Foreign Minister of the I. R. of Iran, together with the Foreign Ministers of the E3+3 (China, France, Germany, the Russian Federation, the United King­dom and the United States), met from 26 March to 2nd April 2015 in Switzerland.

As agreed in November 2013, we gathered here to find solutions towards reaching a com­pre­hensive resolution that will ensure the exclusively peaceful nature of the Iranian nuclear pro­gramme and the comprehensive lifting of all sanctions.

Today, we have taken a decisive step: we have reached solutions on key parameters of a Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA). The political determination, the good will and the hard work of all parties made it possible. Let us thank all delegations for their tireless dedication.

This is a crucial decision laying the agreed basis for the final text of the JCPOA. We can now restart drafting the text and annexes of the JCPOA, guided by the solutions developed in these days.

As Iran pursues a peaceful nuclear programme, Iran’s enrichment capacity, enrichment level and stockpile will be limited for specified durations, and there will be no other enrichment fa­cility than Natanz. Iran’s research and development on centrifuges will be carried out on a sco­pe and schedule that has been mutually agreed.

Fordow will be converted from an enrichment site into a nuclear, physics and technology cen­tre. International collaboration will be encouraged in agreed areas of research. There will not be any fissile material at Fordow.

An international joint venture will assist Iran in redesigning and rebuilding a modernized Heavy Water Research Reactor in Arak that will not produce weapons grade plutonium. There will be no reprocessing and the spent fuel will be exported.

A set of measures have been agreed to monitor the provisions of the JCPOA including imple­men­tation of the modified Code 3.1 and  provisional application of the Additional Protocol. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) will be permitted the use of modern technologies and will have enhanced access through agreed procedures, including to clarify past and present issues.
Iran will take part in international cooperation in the field of civilian nuclear energy which can include supply of power and research reactors. Another important area of cooperation will be in the field of nuclear safety and security.

The EU will terminate the implementation of all nuclear-related economic and financial sancti­ons and the US will cease the application of all nuclear-related secondary economic and finan­cial sanctions, simultaneously with the IAEA-verified implementation by Iran of its key nuclear commitments.

A new UN Security Council Resolution will endorse the JCPOA, terminate all previous nuclear-re­­lated resolutions and incorporate certain restrictive measures for a mutually agreed period of time.

We will now work to write the text of a Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action including its techni­cal details in the coming weeks and months at the political and experts levels. We are commit­ted to complete our efforts by June 30th.

We would like to thank the Swiss government for its generous support in hosting these negotia­tions.